Treatment of Insomnia

It is important to identify or rule out medical and psychological causes before deciding on the treatment for insomnia. The treatment of insomnia is including:

1. Non-pharmacological strategies:

Non-pharmacological strategies are superior to hypnotic medication for insomnia because tolerance develops to the hypnotic effects. In addition, dependence can develop with rebound withdrawal effects developing upon discontinuation. Hypnotic medication is therefore only recommended for short-term use, especially in acute or chronic insomnia. Non pharmacological strategies however, have long lasting improvements to insomnia and are recommended as a first line and long term strategy of managing insomnia.

Non pharmacological strategies include:

(1). Sleep hygiene
(2). Stimulus control
(3). Behavioral interventions
(4). Sleep-restriction therapy
(5). Paradoxical intention
(6). Patient education
(7). Relaxation therapy
(8). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia

2. Medications

Many insomniacs rely on sleeping tablets and other sedatives to get rest, with research showing that medications are prescribed to over 95% of insomniac cases.

The medications for insomnia include:

(1). Benzodiazepines
(2). Non-benzodiazepines
(3). Opioids
(4). Antidepressants
(5). Melatonin and melatonin agonists
(6). Antihistamines
(7). Atypical antipsychotics
(8). Other substances, for example, Some insomniacs use herbs such as valerian, chamomile, lavender, hops, and passion-flower.


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